The varietal and breeding programs of bitter gourd are mostly done in Asian countries. Although, both hybrid and open-pollinated varieties are available worldwide. The hybrid seeds usually produce higher yields but are expensive because the seeds can not be used for replanting and their prices are usually controlled by the seed companies. Besides, improved and modern production technologies must be in placed. Whereas, the open-pollinated ones can be saved and used for future plantings and also for further breeding purposes. Several cultivars/varieties are grown by the farmers that varies in size, shape, color, yield, degree of bitterness, maturity and resistance to pests and diseases. The choice of the varieties grown by the farmers usually depends upon the market preferences of the consumers.